Stainless steel, austenitic, AISI 304, 1/2 hard datasheet

Source: MaterialUniverse data module from Granta Design. An example metal datasheet is provided here.

Composition

Compositional summary: Fe66-74 / Cr18-20 / Ni8-11 (impurities: Mn<2, Si<1, C<0.08, P<0.045, S<0.03)

Price

Metric US Customary
Price 3.59 - 3.92* USD/kg 1.63 - 1.78* USD/lb

Physical properties

Metric US Customary
Density 7850 - 8060 kg/m3 0.284 - 0.291 lb/in3

Mechanical properties

Metric US Customary
Young’s Modulus 190 - 203 GPa 27.6 - 29.4 106 psi
Yield strength 690 - 800 MPa 100 - 116 ksi
Tensile strength 1030 - 2240 MPa 149 - 325 ksi
Elongation 5 - 20* % strain 5 - 20* % strain
Compressive strength 690 - 800* MPa 100 - 116* ksi
Flexural modulus 190 - 203* GPa 27.6 - 29.4* 106 psi
Flexural strength (modulus of rupture) 690 - 800 MPa 100 - 116 ksi
Shear modulus 74 - 81 GPa 10.7 - 11.7 106 psi
Poisson’s ratio 0.265 - 0.275 0.265 - 0.275
Hardness - Vickers 350 - 570* HV 350 - 570* HV
Hardness - Rockwell B 109 - 120* 109 - 120*
Hardness - Rockwell C 36 - 54* 36 - 54*
Hardness - Brinell 336 - 543* HB 336 - 543* HB
Fatigue strength at 107 cycles 436 - 753* MPa 63.2 - 109* ksi
Mechanical loss coefficient (tan delta) 3.1e-4 - 5e-4* 3.1e-4 - 5e-4*

Impact & fracture properties

Metric US Customary
Fracture toughness 79 - 209* MPa.m½ 71.9 - 190* ksi.in½
Ductility index 0.169 - 0.207 0.169 - 0.207

Thermal properties

Metric US Customary
Melting point 1400 - 1450 °C 2550 - 2640 °F
Maximum service temperature 750 - 925 °C 1380 - 1700 °F
Minimum service temperature -200* °C -328* °F
Thermal conductivity 14 - 17 W/m.°C 8.09 - 9.82 BTU.ft/hr.ft2.°F
Specific heat capacity 490 - 530 J/kg.°C 0.117 - 0.127 BTU/lb.°F
Thermal expansion coefficient 16 - 18 µstrain/°C 8.89 - 10 µstrain/°F
Latent heat of fusion 260 - 285* kJ/kg 112 - 123* BTU/lb

Electrical properties

Metric US Customary
Electrical resistivity 65 - 77 µohm.cm 25.6 - 30.3 µohm.in
Galvanic potential -0.15 - -0.07 V -0.15 - -0.07 V

Magnetic properties

Magnetic type Non-magnetic

Bio-data

RoHS (EU) compliant grades? Yes
Food contact Yes
Medical grades? (USP Class VI, ISO 10993) Yes
Medical applications General devices: surgical instruments; non cutting instruments (e.g. forceps and retractors)
Sterilizability (ethylene oxide) Excellent
Sterilizability (radiation) Excellent
Sterilizability (steam autoclave) Excellent
Radiopacity, predicted 20keV 7.12
Radiopacity, predicted 80keV 1.05
Radiopacity, predicted 150keV 1.02

Processing properties

Metal casting Unsuitable
Metal cold forming Excellent
Metal hot forming Acceptable
Metal deep drawing Excellent
Carbon equivalency 0.733 - 1.03

Durability

Water (fresh) Excellent
Water (salt) Excellent
Weak acids Excellent
Strong acids Acceptable
Weak alkalis Excellent
Strong alkalis Excellent
Organic solvents Excellent
Oxidation at 500 °C Excellent
UV radiation (sunlight) Excellent
Galling resistance (adhesive wear) Limited use
Flammability Non-flammable

Primary production energy, CO2 and water

Metric US Customary
Embodied energy, primary production 63.5 - 70 MJ/kg 27300 - 30100 BTU/lb
CO2 footprint, primary production 4.31 - 4.76 kg/kg 4.31 - 4.76 lb/lb
NOx creation 29.3 - 32.4* g/kg 0.0293 - 0.0324* lb/lb
SOx creation 50.1 - 55.4* g/kg 0.0501 - 0.0554* lb/lb
Water usage 138 - 153* l/kg 3820 - 4240* in3/lb

Processing energy, CO2 footprint & water

Metric US Customary
Rough rolling, forging energy 6.2 - 6.85* MJ/kg 2670 - 2950* BTU/lb
Rough rolling, forging CO2 0.465 - 0.514* kg/kg 0.465 - 0.514* lb/lb
Rough rolling, forging water 4.20 - 6.30* l/kg 116 - 174* in3/lb
Extrusion, foil rolling energy 12.1 - 13.4* MJ/kg 5210 - 5760* BTU/lb
Extrusion, foil rolling CO2 0.909 - 1* kg/kg 0.909 - 1* lb/lb
Extrusion, foil rolling water 6.73 - 10.10* l/kg 186 - 279.6* in3/lb
Wire drawing energy 44.7 - 49.4* MJ/kg 19200 - 21200* BTU/lb
Wire drawing CO2 3.35 - 3.7* kg/kg 3.35 - 3.7* lb/lb
Wire drawing water 16.8 - 25.2* l/kg 466 - 699* in3/lb
Metal powder forming energy 37.8 - 41.7* MJ/kg 16300 - 17900 BTU/lb
Metal powder forming CO2 3.02 - 3.34* kg/kg 3.02 - 3.34* lb/lb
Metal powder forming water 41.2 - 61.8* l/kg 1140 - 1710* in3/lb
Vaporization energy 10900 - 12000* MJ/kg 4.67e6 - 5.16e6* BTU/lb
Vaporization CO2 815 - 900* kg/kg 815 - 900* lb/lb
Vaporization water 4530 - 6790* l/kg 1.25e5 - 1.88e5* in3/lb
Course machining energy (per unit wt removed) 1.36 - 1.51* MJ/kg 586 - 647* BTU/lb
Course machining CO2 (per unit wt removed) 0.102 - 0.113* kg/kg 0.102 - 0.113* lb/lb
Fine machining energy (per unit wt removed) 9.35 - 10.3* MJ/kg 4020 - 4440* BTU/lb
Fine machining CO2 (per unit wt removed) 0.701 - 0.775* kg/kg 0.701 - 0.775* lb/lb
Grinding energy (per unit wt removed) 18.2 - 20.1* MJ/kg 7830 - 8660* BTU/lb
Grinding CO2 (per unit wt removed) 1.37 - 1.51* kg/kg 1.37 - 1.51* lb/lb

Recycling and end of life

Metric US Customary
Recycle Yes
Embodied energy, recycling 14.1 - 15.5* MJ/kg 6060 - 6660* BTU/lb
CO2 footprint, recycling 1.1 - 1.22* kg/kg 1.1 - 1.22* lb/lb
Recycle fraction in current supply 35.5 - 39.3 % 35.5 - 39.3 %
Downcycle Yes
Combust for energy recovery No
Landfill Yes
Biodegrade No

Critical materials status

Abundance risk level Medium
Sourcing and geopolitical risk level Low
Environmental country risk level Very low
Price volatility risk level Very high
Conflict material risk level None

Equivalent grades

Standards with similar compositions ONORM M3120 X5CrNi18105 (Austria)
EN 10088/3(95) 1.4301 (Europe)
EN 10088/3(95) X5CrNi18-10 (Europe)
BDS 6738(72) 0Ch18N10 (Bulgaria)
GB 1220(92) 0Cr18Ni9 (China)
GB 1221(92) 0Cr18Ni9 (China)
GB 13296(91) 0Cr18Ni9 (China)
GB 4232(93) ML0Cr18Ni9 (China)
GB 4237(92) 0Cr18Ni9 (China)
GB 4238(92) 0Cr18Ni9 (China)
GB 4239(91) 0Cr18Ni9 (China)
GB 4240(93) 0Cr18Ni9(-L,-Q,-R) (China)
CSN 417240 17240 (Czech Republic)
SFS 700 X4CrNi189 (Finland)
SFS 725(86) X4CrNi189 (Finland)
AFNOR NFA35573 Z6CN18.09 (France)
AFNOR NFA35574 Z6CN18.09 (France)
AFNOR NFA35577 Z6CN18.09 (France)
AFNOR NFA36209 Z5CN18.09 (France)
AFNOR NFA36607 Z5CN18.09 (France)
DIN 17440(96) WNr 1.4301 (Germany)
DIN 17441(97) WNr 1.4301 (Germany)
DIN EN 10088(95) WNr 1.4301 (Germany)
DIN EN 10088(95) X5CrNi18-10 (Germany)
MSZ 4360(87) KO33 (Hungary)
MSZ 4360(87) X8CrNi1810 (Hungary)
MSZ 4398(86) KO33 (Hungary)
IS 1570/5(85) X04Cr19Ni9 (India)
IS 6527 04Cr18Ni10 (India)
IS 6528 04Cr18Ni10 (India)
IS 6529 04Cr18Ni10 (India)
IS 6603 04Cr18Ni10 (India)
IS 6911 04Cr18Ni10 (India)
UNI 6901(71) X5CrNi1810 (Italy)
UNI 6904(71) X5CrNi1810 (Italy)
UNI 7500(75) X5CrNi1810 (Italy)
JIS G3214(91) SUSF304 (Japan)
JIS G4303(91) SUS304 (Japan)
JIS G4303(91) SUS304J3 (Japan)
JIS G4304(91) SUS304 (Japan)
JIS G4305(91) SUS304 (Japan)
JIS G4305(91) SUS304J1 (Japan)
JIS G4305(91) SUS304J2 (Japan)
JIS G4306 SUS304 (Japan)
JIS G4307 SUS304 (Japan)
JIS G4308 SUS304J3 (Japan)
JIS G4308(98) SUS304 (Japan)
JIS G4309 SUS304 (Japan)
JIS G4309 SUS304J3 (Japan)
JIS G4313(96) SUS304-CSP (Japan)
JIS G4315 SUS304 (Japan)
JIS G4315 SUS304J3 (Japan)
DGN B-218 TP304 (Mexico)
DGN B-224 TP304 (Mexico)
DGN B-83 304 (Mexico)
NMX-B-171(91) MT304 (Mexico)
NMX-B-176(91) TP304 (Mexico)
NMX-B-186-SCFI(94) TP304 (Mexico)
NMX-B-196(68) TP304 (Mexico)
NS 14350 14350 (Norway)
AS 1449(94) 304 (NSW Australia)
AS 2837(86) 304 (NSW Australia)
CSA G110.3 304 (ON Canada)
CSA G110.6 304 (ON Canada)
CSA G110.9 304 (ON Canada)
PNH86020 0H18N9 (Poland)
STAS 3583(87) 5NiCr180 (Romania)
GOST O8Ch18N10 (Russian Federation)
GOST 5632(61) 0KH18N10 (Russian Federation)
GOST 5632(72) 08Ch18N10 (Russian Federation)
UNE 36016(75) F.3504 (Spain)
UNE 36016(75) X6CrNi19-10 (Spain)
UNE 36016/1(89) E-304 (Spain)
UNE 36016/1(89) F.3504 (Spain)
UNE 36087(78) F.3541 (Spain)
UNE 36087(78) F.3551 (Spain)
UNE 36087(78) X5CrNi18-10 (Spain)
UNE 36087(78) X5CrNi18-11 (Spain)
SS 142332 2332 (Sweden)
SS 142333 2333 (Sweden)
ISO 4954(93) X5CrNi189E (International)
ISO 683-13(74) 11 (International)
BS 1449/2(83) 304S15 (United Kingdom)
BS 1449/2(83) 304S16 (United Kingdom)
BS 1449/2(83) 304S31 (United Kingdom)
BS 1501/3(73) 304S15 (United Kingdom)
BS 1501/3(73) 304S29 (United Kingdom)
BS 1501/3(90) 304S31 (United Kingdom)
BS 1501/3(90) 304S51 (United Kingdom)
BS 1501/3(90) 304S61 (United Kingdom)
BS 1502 304S31 (United Kingdom)
BS 1503(89) 304S31 (United Kingdom)
BS 1506(90) 304S31 (United Kingdom)
BS 1554(90) 304S15 (United Kingdom)
BS 1554(90) 304S31 (United Kingdom)
BS 3059/2(90) 304S51 (United Kingdom)
BS 3605 304S18 (United Kingdom)
BS 3605 304S25 (United Kingdom)
BS 3605/1(91) 304S31 (United Kingdom)
BS 3605/1(91) 304S51 (United Kingdom)
BS 3606(78) 304S22 (United Kingdom)
BS 3606(78) 304S25 (United Kingdom)
BS 3606(92) 304S31 (United Kingdom)
BS 970/1(96) 304S15 (United Kingdom)
BS 970/1(96) 304S31 (United Kingdom)
AMS 5501 (USA)
AMS 5513 (USA)
AMS 5560H(92) (USA)
AMS 5563 (USA)
AMS 5564 (USA)
AMS 5565 (USA)
AMS 5566 (USA)
AMS 5567 (USA)
AMS 5639 (USA)
AMS 5697 (USA)
AMS 5857(90) (USA)
AMS 5868(93) (USA)
AMS 7228 (USA)
AMS 7245 (USA)
ASME SA182 304 (USA)
ASME SA213 304 (USA)
ASME SA240 304 (USA)
ASME SA249 304 (USA)
ASME SA312 304 (USA)
ASME SA358 304 (USA)
ASME SA376 304 (USA)
ASME SA403 304 (USA)
ASME SA409 304 (USA)
ASME SA430 304 (USA)
ASME SA479 304 (USA)
ASME SA688 304 (USA)
ASTM A167(96) 304 (USA)
ASTM A182 304 (USA)
ASTM A182/A182M(98) F304 (USA)
ASTM A193/A193M(98) 304 (USA)
ASTM A193/A193M(98) B8 (USA)
ASTM A193/A193M(98) B8A (USA)
ASTM A194 304 (USA)
ASTM A194/A194M(98) 8 (USA)
ASTM A194/A194M(98) 8A (USA)
ASTM A213 304 (USA)
ASTM A213/A213M(95) TP304 (USA)
ASTM A240/A240M(98) S30400 (USA)
ASTM A249/249M(96) TP304 (USA)
ASTM A269 304 (USA)
ASTM A270(95) 304 (USA)
ASTM A271(96) 304 (USA)
ASTM A276(98) 304 (USA)
ASTM A312/A312M(95) 304 (USA)
ASTM A313/A313M(95) 304 (USA)
ASTM A314 304 (USA)
ASTM A320 304 (USA)
ASTM A336/A336M(98) F304 (USA)
ASTM A358/A358M(95) 304 (USA)
ASTM A368(95) 304 (USA)
ASTM A376 304 (USA)
ASTM A409 304 (USA)
ASTM A430 304 (USA)
ASTM A473 304 (USA)
ASTM A479 304 (USA)
ASTM A492 304 (USA)
ASTM A493 304 (USA)
ASTM A511(96) MT304 (USA)
ASTM A554(94) MT304 (USA)
ASTM A580/A580M(98) 304 (USA)
ASTM A632(90) TP304 (USA)
ASTM A666(96) 304 (USA)
ASTM A688/A688M(96) TP304 (USA)
ASTM A793(96) 304 (USA)
ASTM A813/A813M(95) TP304 (USA)
ASTM A814/A814M(96) TP304 (USA)
ASTM A851(96) TP304 (USA)
ASTM A908(95) 304 (USA)
ASTM A943/A943M(95) TP304 (USA)
ASTM A965/965M(97) F304 (USA)
ASTM A988(98) S30400 (USA)
MIL-S-23195(A)(65) 304 (USA)
MIL-S-23196 304 (USA)
MIL-S-27419(USAF)(68) 304 (USA)
MIL-S-5059D(90) 304 (USA)
MIL-T-8504B(98) 304 (USA)
MIL-T-8506A 304 (USA)
SAE J405(98) S30400 (USA)
SAE J467(68) 304 (USA)
AISI 304 (USA)
COPANT 513 TP304 (Venezuela)
COPANT R195 TP 304 (Venezuela)

Alternative names

Alternative names and designations S30400, ASTM WP304, ASTM TP304, ASTM S30403, ASTM S30400, ASTM MT304, ASTM F304, AMS 5697, AMS 5567, AMS 5566, AMS 5565, AMS 5564, AMS 5563, ~ASTM S30453, X5CrNi18-10, LW20, ~1.4948, ~1.4301, X5CrNi18-9E, X5CrNi18-9, ~X5CrNiN19-9, ~X5CrNiN18-8, SUS304, SUSF304, SUS304-WSB, SUS304-WSA, SUS304TPY, SUS304TPD, SUS304TP, SUS304TKC, SUS304TKA, SUS304TBS, SUS304TB, SUS304FB, SUS304-CSP, SUS304N1-WPB, SUS304N1-WPA, SUS304 TF, SDP4, ~SUS304L, ~SCS13AA-CF, STAINLESS STEEL GRADE 304, Aalco (UK); 304 STAINLESS STEEL, AK Steel (USA); STAINLESS STEEL 304, Vegas Fastener (USA); 304 STAINLESS STEEL, Electronic Alloys (UK); 304L STAINLESS STEEL, Electronic Alloys (UK); STAINLESS STEEL GRADE 304L, Aalco (UK); 304L STAINLESS STEEL, AK Steel (USA)

Properties marked with * are estimated using Granta proprietary models based on similar materials and property correlations.